BEFORE WRITING:

  • You must brainstorm ideas for your essay and then select the best ones.

THEME ORGANIZATION :

  1. Introduction: what you are going to write about
  2. Body: development of ideas
  3. Conclusion: little summary of your ideas or personal opinion.

HOW YOU MUST WRITE:

  • Write paragraphs with clear ideas. These paragraphs must be easy to understand and completely developed. Keep your sentences short and well-punctuated, not long and convoluted. Omit unnecessary words.
  • Place the main idea in the first sentence of each paragraph. Develop this main idea with supporting material.
  • Use transitional words ( first, yet, however, consequently…).Lead the reader to the thought of the following paragraph by a final transitional sentence. Open the next paragraph with a transitional word; for example, if you put moreover, you indicate to the reader that you will offer additional supporting evidence for your viewpoint.
  • Give coherence to your writing by maintaining a consistent point of view. Unnecessary, sudden and illogical shifts in point of view, that is, in subject, person, number, tense, voice and mood, affect sentence and paragraph relationships, thus obscuring meaning. Make the verb agree with the subject.

TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND SENTENCES:

  • To indicate ADDITION: again, also, and, besides, equally important, first, in the second place, secondly, furthermore, in addition, moreover, finally…
  • To indicate COMPARISON: in the same way, likewise, similarly
  • To indicate CONCESSION: although this way, at the same time, after all, certainly, doubtless, surely, I admit…
  • To indicate CONDITION: as if, if, as though, even if
  • To indicate CONSEQUENCES OR RESULT: and so, after all, at last, as a result, as a consequence, consequently, finally, in conclusion, so, therefore, thus…
  • To indicate CONTRAST: although true, but, yet for all that, however, nevertheless, on the one hand, on the other hand, whereas…
  • To indicate EXAMPLES: especially, for example, for instance, in general, in particular, in this way, namely…
  • To indicate OPINION: I believe that, I think that, In my opinion…
  • To indicate REASON: because, since, for…
  • To indicate REPETITION: and so again, as has been said, in other words, to repeat…
  • To indicate REPHRASING: in other words, that is to say…
  • To indicate SEQUENCE: firstly, to begin with, secondly, next ,after that, finally in the end, at last...
  • To indicate SUMMARY: in brief, in short, to sum up, to summarize, in conclusion, to conclude…


ESSAY TYPES:
  • Biography: key language: sequence linking words to put the ideas in chronological order, adjectives, relative clauses…
  • Description: key language: adjectives, adverbs of degree, relative clauses…
    Dialogue: key language: short questions and answers, expressions to show reactions ( Really?...)
  • For and against essay: key language: linking words and phrases to indicate consequence, addition and example, contrast, modal verbs for hypothesis, second conditionals…
  • Letter: key language: greetings, endings, linking words to indicate reason for writing...
  • Opinion: key language: expressions for giving opinion, linking words to indicate result, cause or purpose...
  • Short story: key language: linking words to sequence events, narrative tenses (past simple, past continuous…)


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